Tiphia vernalis Rohwer was introduced to the United States from Asia in 1915 to control the Japanese beetle and is currently established across much of the pest’s Eastern range, including Ohio, North Carolina, and Tennessee, but as of 2000 was absent in Michigan (Mahr 1999, Cappaert and Smitley 2002, Rogers and Potter 2003). In addition, it is not recommended to treat for grubs in nearby grassy areas or landscape corridors to control populations within crop fields as adults can fly in from neighboring nontreated areas (Potter et al. Males and females can be differentiated from each other by the shape of the tibia (part of the leg) and tarsus (foot) on the pair of legs nearest the head (Fig. Koch, R. L., E. W. Hodgson, J. J. Knodel, A. J. Varenhorst, and B. D. Potter. Areas heavily infested with larvae do not necessarily result in severe injury by adults to crops growing in proximity (Dalthorp et al. 2012). Upon hatching, the wasp larva feeds externally, imbibing internal fluids by piercing the grub’s cuticle. 1988) influence the number of eggs laid by females in crop fields, with higher densities in reduced-tillage systems (Hammond and Stinner 1987), and determine the proximity of the oviposition site to the feeding site (Régnière et al. This oviposition strategy proved to enhance larval development (Szendrei and Isaacs 2006). Adults may be confused with other species of beetles that can co-occur on many of their host plants (EMPPO 2006; Fig. However, treatment of grubs within crop fields is not recommended unless there is evidence that the grubs are actually damaging newly sowed seeds (Edwards 1999). 5). Once established, Japanese beetles can be a difficult and expensive insect pest to control, estimated at approximately $450 million each year in the United States for turfgrass management alone (USDA-NASS 2016). The information contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed. In the Midwestern United States, Japanese beetle has not historically been an economically important pest. Map of Japanese beetle distribution in the United States as of 2018 and Canada as of 2016. Aggregations of Japanese beetle adults on a single plant or in a specific area often worry growers, because defoliation appears severe. However, several groups of birds including grackles, meadowlarks, pheasants, chickens, ducks, and geese have been noted to feed on the beetles and may be important control agents (Klein 1998). Flight activity is greatest during clear weather when the temperature is between 84 and 95°F (29–35°C), relative humidity is above 60%, and wind speed is below 12.43 mph (20 kph) (Fleming 1972, Lacey et al. As discussed earlier, Japanese beetle populations in an area can be influenced by several factors, one of them being ground cover. Adults feed mainly on leaves of plants, eating between the veins and leaving a characteristic skeletonized appearance. Steckel, S., S. D. Stewart, and K. V. Tindall. 2015, Dewerff et al. Jordan, T. A., R. R. Youngman, C. L. Laub, S. Tiwari, T. P. Kuhar, T. K. Balderson, D. M. Moore, and M. Saphir. 1993). 1999, Potter and Held 2002). A. Gervais, K. Buhl, and D. Stone. With Japanese beetle, non-host plants are thought to be identified mainly by the presence of feeding deterrents rather than feeding stimulants in host plants (Potter and Held 2002, Adesanya et al. (MDA) Minnesota Department of Agriculture. Graphic by Erin Hodgson. The pest status of Japanese beetle is due in part to its generalist nature, feeding on more than 300 plant species, as well as the ability to form large aggregations (Smith and Hadley 1926, Fleming 1972, Potter and Held 2002). 2019a, 2019b). 738-R-96-017. Japanese beetle adults are a sporadic pest of corn (Edwards 1999). Although it is more difficult to target highly mobile adults, several products are labeled for use in corn and soybeans. There is building evidence for Japanese beetles’ selectivity among varieties documented in soybean (Chandrasena et al. After scouting, assuming the sample is representative of the entire field, insecticides are recommended when the defoliating insects are present and defoliation is greater than 30% before bloom or 20% from bloom to pod fill (Turnipseed 1972, Dewerff et al. Just when a garden looks good, ravenous Japanese beetles can promptly emerge in the heart of summer to devour the gardener's favorite plants. The first Japanese beetle found Canada was in a tourist's car at Yarmouth, arriving in Nova Scotia by ferry from Maine in 1939. Diazinon is still currently allowed for agricultural use in the United States (Harper et al. 2000, Potter and Held 2002). It has been recovered in Minnesota since 2004 with parasitism rates of adult beetles estimated at ~10% (Luhman 2008); however, it was not recovered in Michigan in 2000 and may not be established there (Cappaert and Smitley 2002). Eggs vary slightly in size and shape. 3). 2019a, 2019b). Smith, A. W., R. B. Hammond, and B. R. Stinner. For several years now, Japanese beetles have given Canadian gardeners and farmers headaches. Larvae have chewing mouthparts, three pairs of thoracic legs, and 10 abdominal segments (EMPPO 2006). 1994); these conditions would subsequently be optimal for adult feeding activity (Fleming 1972). Switzer, P. V., K. Escajeda, and K. C. Kruse. Additionally, Dalthorp et al. The use of traps as a control method for Japanese beetle is controversial, as attracted beetles may destroy foliage surrounding the trap (Potter and Held 2002). 2009). The females will fly to an area of turf grass and lay an average of three eggs a few inches into the soil. Host-plant resistance has been recently discovered for the management of Japanese beetle in soybean. Traps are … Chandrasena et al. Photo about Macro view of a shiny green and brown Japanese beetle on head of red clover. Due to their large size, rigid body, and invasive pest status, biological control of Japanese beetle adults is difficult. There are three larval stages (or instars) of Japanese beetle. These environments present ideal conditions for oviposition for the overwintering generation. Sugar concentrations vary considerably with levels of light and typically increase during the day; therefore, sunlit plants experience higher natural sugar content (Bernays and Chapman 1994), increasing their chance for attack. Despite its extreme generalist feeding, Japanese beetle shows distinct preferences for certain plant species, whereas other plant species are rarely or never fed upon. The economic threshold for Japanese beetle in soybean is based on percent defoliation and growth stage, and often encompasses all chewing-type insects since it is difficult to distinguish among types of injury from other defoliators. Beetles will feed primarily in the upper canopy, but generally do not destroy the entire leaf surface; lower leaves in the canopy will remain untouched (Fleming 1972, Rowe and Potter 1996). Diapause ends the following spring when soil temperatures in the upper 6 inches (15 cm) exceed 50°F (10°C), and grubs begin to move back upward in the soil profile to continue feeding for another 4 to 8 wk before pupating (Vittum 1986). 1992), low organic matter content (Dalthorp et al. 2006). Least favored does not mean that Japanese beetles will not feed on them, just that they don't tend to feed as much. ** Scots and Austrian Pine are not recommended because of disease problems. Tumlinson, J. H., M. G. Klein, R. E. Doolittle, T. L. Ladd, and A. T. Proveaux. 2005). Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Integrated Crop Management News, Japanese beetle outbreak among the worst in Minnesota, Value of neonicotinoid seed treatments to US soybean farmers, Michigan blueberry facts: Japanese beetle, Michigan State University, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI, Chiral discrimination of the Japanese beetle sex pheromone and a behavioral antagonist by a pheromone-degrading enzyme, Host specialization in phytophagous Insects, Fall soil sampling method for predicting spring infestation of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in corn and the benefits of clothianidin seed treatment in Virginia, Japanese beetle: the continuing struggle to achieve successful biological control, Midwest Biological Control News Online Vol. Japanese beetles are an invasive species. Japanese beetle injury to soybean, including (a) close-up defoliation and a mating pair (Erin Hodgson) and (b) field-wide feeding (Robert Koch). George, J., C. T. Redmond, R. N. Royalty, and D. A. Potter. 1988, Bohlen and Barrett 1990). Another option is to grow Japanese beetle resistant plants. Japanese beetle grubs are pests of turfgrass. Larvae are relatively immobile in the soil; therefore, the level of damage depends on their location relative to the plant. Japanese beetle is native to northern Japan (Fleming 1976), where it is considered a minor agricultural pest due to the combination of coevolved natural enemies and unsuitable terrain for larval development (Clausen et al. The beetles crowd together and cause damage in numbers. About 1 ⁄ 2 inch long, Japanese beetles are a shiny, metallic green with coppery brown wing covers that extend almost to the tip of the abdomen ().Small tufts of white hairs occur at the tip of the abdomen and along each side. Currently, Japanese beetle is considered established in 28 states and five Canadian provinces, with six other states partially infested (CFIA 2016, USDA-APHIS 2018; Fig. Carbaryl did not reduce Japanese beetle populations, and the combination of imidacloprid and carbaryl was not better than imidacloprid alone (Mannion et al. Key differences in scouting and treatment between corn and soybean exist that are outlined below. Add about 3-5% of clover seeds to grass seeds when you sow a new law. From 1973 to 1977, four northeastern states (CT, OH, PA, and NY) reported resistance of white grubs to chlordane insecticides (Niemczyk and Lawrence 1973, Niemczyk 1974, Ng and Ahmad 1979), with one population in Ohio exhibiting cross-resistance to other chlorinated insecticides, including aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor (Niemczyk and Lawrence 1973). 1997). Discovered in the U.S in 1916, the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is widespread in many states east of the Mississippi River (except Florida).The insect has been established in Wisconsin since the 1990s. A., C. L. Casteel, P. D. Nabity, M. R. Berenbaum, and E. H. DeLucia. Karin Lewis (Bookatz) has uploaded 2118 photos to Flickr. Since its discovery, the beetle spread westward across the country with great success, presumably due to favorable groundcover, such as turfgrass, for larval development, adequate rainfall and human-assisted movement (Potter and Held 2002). Copyright © 2020ISU Extension and Outreach
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